There are a lot of Giorgio Parisi interesting facts! Professor Giorgio Parisi of Rome’s Sapienza University has won the Nobel Prize for finding hidden patterns in chaotic complex materials. His contributions to the theory of complex systems are among the most significant.

In a statement, Thors Hans Hansson, chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics, remarked, “The discoveries being recognized this year demonstrate that our knowledge about the climate rests on a solid scientific foundation, based on rigorous analysis of observations, facts about Giorgio Parisi. This year’s Laureates have all contributed to us gaining deeper insight into the properties and evolution of complex physical systems.”

According to the Nobel Assembly, physics was the first prize area listed in Alfred Nobel’s testament, which was written in 1895. “At the end of the nineteenth century, many people considered physics as the foremost of the sciences, and perhaps Nobel saw it this way as well. His own research was also closely tied to physics,” They also noted, facts about Giorgio Parisi.

Giorgio Parisi is an Italian theoretical physicist who specializes in quantum field theory, statistical mechanics, and complex systems. The QCD evolution equations for Parton densities, known as the Altarelli–Parisi or DGLAP equations, obtained with Guido Altarelli, the exact solution of the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses, the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation describing dynamic scaling of growing interfaces, and the study of whirling flocks of birds are among his most well-known contributions.

He shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2021 with Klaus Hasselmann and Syukuro Manabe for “discovering the interaction of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”

The deep meaning of the answer was discovered in one of his later efforts, which led to the introduction of ultrametricity into physics. The technique has been given a probability interpretation, interesting facts about Giorgio Parisi. The book Spin glass theory and beyond is a collection of many of the articles done on this topic. These findings are fascinating and have implications in a variety of areas, including biology (neural networks, heteropolymer folding) and combinatorial optimization. A rigorous theorem attributed to Talagrand has proven their soundness.

To test the validity of replica theory quantitatively, a series of extremely large-scale simulations of three-dimensional spin glasses were performed. The numerical simulations and theoretical findings are in excellent accord, fun facts about Giorgio Parisi.

The theoretical foundation has been extended to non-quenched disorder models, first in the mean-field approximation and then in structural glass models (binary mixtures) cool facts about Giorgio Parisi. For the first time, analytic microscopic calculations of the transition temperature and thermodynamic variables in the glassy phase were performed in this fashion.

A lot of work has gone into better understanding the physical ramifications of replica symmetry breakdown. Indeed, the validity of generalized fluctuation-dissipation equations in off-equilibrium dynamics has been proven to have a direct experimental equivalent in the breaking of replica symmetry, Giorgio Parisi facts. Both for spin glasses and delicate glasses, numerical simulations match very well with theoretical expectations. Experiments are now being carried out in spin glasses and structure glasses in order to discover these relationships. There have been some encouraging findings, Let’s find more Giorgio Parisi facts!

### Phase transitions and statistical mechanics

**Giorgio Parisi’s key findings revealed by Giorgio Parisi include:**

•A conformal bootstrap framework for computing critical indices.

•Using renormalization group theory instead of the epsilon expansion, a novel approach for finding critical indices has been developed.

•Computing the adjustments to the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation for critical exponents in a systematic way.

•Using the previously derived supersymmetry characteristics of stochastic differential equations, accurate computation of critical exponents for branching polymers.

•The notion of multifractals in turbulence and weird attractors was introduced. Multifractals have since been used in a wide number of disciplines in physics.

### Mathematical physics and string theory

**In this area the main results found by Giorgio Parisi are:**

•In a theory with Fermions, computing the asymptotic behavior of the perturbative expansion.

•The assessment of WKB technique adjustments owing to complicated turning spots.

•The study of O(N) invariant theories in the infinite limit of N. These findings are useful for calculating the number of closed graphs of a particular sort on a genus k surface (i.e. generalized planar diagrams). These findings have lately been utilized as a starting point for non-perturbative string theory research in low dimensions. On the one-dimensional string theory, he has produced findings (both purely Bosonic and supersymmetric).

### Selected papers of Giorgio Parisi

•1975 G. Parisi, *Quark imprisonment and vacuum repulsion*. Phys. Rev. **D11**: 970.

•1976 G. Altarelli and G. Parisi, *Asymptotic freedom in parton language*. Nucl. Phys. **B126**: 298.

•1978 E. Brezin, C. Itzykson, G. Parisi, JB. Zuber, *Planar diagrams*, Comm. Math. Phys. **59**, 35.

•1979 G. Parisi and N. Sourlas, *Random magnetic fields, supersymmetry, and negative dimensions*. Phys. Rev. Letters **43**: 774.

•1981 F. Fucito, E. Marinari, G. Parisi, and C. Rebbi, *A proposal for Monte Carlo simulations of Fermionic systems.* Nucl. Phys. **B180 [FS2]**: 369.

•1982 R. Benzi, G. Parisi, A. Sutera, A. Vulpiani, *Stochastic resonance in climatic change*, Tellus, **24**, 10.

•1984 R. Benzi, G. Paladin, G. Parisi, and A. Vulpiani, *Multifractal Sets in Physics*. J. Phys. **A17**: 3521.

•1986 M. Kardar, G. Parisi, and Y.C. Zhang, *Dynamic scaling of growing interfaces*. Phys. Rev. Lett. **56**: 889-892

•1987 M Mezard, G Parisi, MA Virasoro *Spin Glass Theory and Beyond*, World Scientific, Singapore.

•1988 The Ape Collaboration, P. Bacilieri et al. *New results for the glueballs and the string tension *Phys. Lett. **205B**, 535.

•1993 C. Battista et al. *The APE-100 computer. I. The architecture*, Inter. J. of High-Speed Computing, **5**, 637.

•1994 E. Marinari, G. Parisi, and F. Ritort, *Replica field theory for deterministic models. II. A non-random spin glass with glassy behaviour*. J. Physics **A 27**: 7647.

•1997 G. Parisi, *Off-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation in fragile glasses*. Phys. Rev. Lett. **79**: 3660

•1998 Franz, M. Mezard, G. Parisi, and L. Peliti, *Measuring equilibrium properties in aging systems*. Phys. Rev. Lett. **81**: 1758.

•1999 Mezard and G. Parisi, *Thermodynamics of glasses: a first principles computation*.Phys. Rev. Lett. **82**: 747.

•2001 T.S. Grigera, V. Martin-Mayor, G. Parisi, P. Verrocchio, *Vibrational spectrum of topologically disordered systems*, Phys. Rev. Lett. **87**, 085502.

•2002 T. S. Grigera, A. Cavagna, I. Giardina and G. Parisi, *Geometric approach to the dynamic glass transition*, Phys. Rev. Lett. **88**, 055502.

•2002 M. Mezard, G. Parisi, R Zecchina, *Analytic and algorithmic solution of random satisfiability problems*, Science **297**, 812.

•2003 TS Grigera, V Martin-Mayor, G Parisi, P Verrocchio *Phonon interpretation of the Boson peak in supercooled liquids*, Nature **422**, 289.

•2004 M. Mézard, G. Parisi *The Bethe lattice spin glass revisited* The European Physical Journal B, **20**, 1434.

•2004 A. Montanari, G. Parisi and F. Ricci-Terssenghi *Instability of one-step replica-symmetry-broken phase in satisfiability problems* J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 37 2073.

•2006 G. Parisi *Spin Glasses and fragile glasses: statics, dynamics and complexity* PNAS **103** 7948.

## Giorgio Parisi Interesting Facts

1. Giorgio Parisi is The Nobel Prize winner in Physics 2021 “for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales.”

2. His affiliation at the time of the award is Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

3. Giorgio Parisi was born on 4 August 1948 in Rome, Italy

4. Name f his wife is Daniella

5. Name of his children is, Lorenza and Leonardo.

6. Giorgio Parisi was born on April 8, 1948, in Rome. He has two children and is married.

7. In 1970, he received his bachelor’s degree from the University of Rome, under the supervision of Nicola Cabibbo.

8. Under the guidance of Nicola Cabibbo, Giorgio Parisi obtained his degree from the University of Rome La Sapienza in 1970.

9. He worked at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati from 1971 to 1981 and was a visiting scientist at Columbia University (1973–1974), the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (1976–1977), and the École Normale Supérieure (1977–1978).

10. He was a full professor of theoretical physics at the University of Rome Tor Vergata from 1981 to 1992 and is currently a professor of quantum theories at Rome’s Sapienza University.

11. He is a member of the “Cracking the Glass Problem” Simons Collaboration. He was named president of the Accademia dei Lincei in 2018.

12. In conjunction with Mezard and M.A. Virasoro, Giorgio Parisi wrote three books: Statistical Field Theory (Addison Wesley, New York, 1988), Spin Glass Theory and Beyond (Word Scientific, Singapore, 1988), and Field Theory, Disorder, and Simulations (Word Scientific, Singapore, 1988). (Word Scientific, Singapore, 1992).

13. In 1986, he was awarded the Academia dei Lincei’s Feltrinelli prize for physics, the Boltzmann medal in 1992, the Italgas prize in 1993, the Dirac medal and prize in 1999, the Italian Prime Minister prize in 2002, the Enrico Fermi Prize in 2003, the Dannie Heineman Prize in 2005, the Nonino Prize in 2005, and the Galileo prize in 2006.

14. He is a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, the French Academy of Sciences, the Accademia dei XL, and the United States National Academy of Sciences. Urbin University awarded him a laurea honoris causa in philosophy.

15. He is (or has been) a member of the editorial board of numerous journals and scientific bodies, including the INFM’s scientific committee, the French National Research Panel, and the IUPAP’s Italian delegation.

16. He is currently the head of the CNR-INFM SMC (Statistical Mechanics and Complexity) research and development facility in Rome.

17. Giorgio Parisi explored the characteristics of Quantum Cromodynamics after working on the parton model.

18. His most notable contributions include an analysis of scaling violations in deep inelastic scattering based on integral differential equations controlling the evolution of partonic densities as a function of momentum and a model for quark confinement based on the analogy of magnetic monopole confinement in a superconductor due to flux tube formation. This last model is frequently used to explain quark confinement in a straightforward manner.

19. Using the renormalization group, he has also proposed some intriguing relationships between the gravitational constant, the electron charge, and the number of distinct Fermionic species, as well as strong constraints on the mass of the Higgs particle.

20. He began computing the observed hadronic mass spectrum using large-scale computer simulations based on the quenched approximation, which ignores vacuum polarization diagrams.

21. He’s also the one who came up with the first efficient approach for computing Fermion loops (the pseudofermions technique). The goal of building the APE computers was to get at a mass spectrum calculation with a 5- 10% accuracy. Using the APE computers, this aim was basically achieved in the quenched approximation.

22. In 1979, Giorgio Parisi used a novel order parameter to find the precise solution to the infinite range spin-glass model, which parametrizes the spontaneous breakdown of replica symmetry in these models. The deep meaning of the answer was discovered in a later effort, which led to the introduction of ultrametricity into physics.

23. Giorgio Parisi was in charge of the APE project, which involved the design (hardware and software) of an APE (Array Processor Expansible) computer with a SIMD structure and a maximum performance of 1 Gflops; 20 people worked on this INFN-sponsored project.

24. Three APE computers were built, and they were primarily utilized to compute the hadronic mass spectrum using techniques established in.

25. In 1993, the APE-100, a new computer with a maximum speed of 100 Gflops, was built, and around 20 copies were made.

26. Although faster supercomputers in the same class were built, Giorgio Parisi was no longer a part of the collaboration.

27. The study of the growth model for random aggregation on a surface was the first contribution to this subject.

28. It was proposed that a stochastic differential equation be used (the so-called KPZ equation). This equation was found to be linked to direct polymer, which was studied using the broken replica approach established for spin glasses.

29. He has also recently looked at the depinning transition for charge density waves and random media interfaces.

30. The results of generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations in somewhat off-equilibrium systems offer a fascinating bridge between equilibrium and non-equilibrium behavior that has received a lot of attention.

31. For his work, Giorgio Parisi received the Dirac Medal and Prize (ICTP, Trieste 1999).

32. For his remarkable contributions to statistical physics, notably the theories of phase transitions and disordered systems, Giorgio Parisi was awarded the Boltzmann Medal (Iupap, Berlin 1992).

33. He was also the first to realize that critical exponents may be obtained by expanding the beta function at fixed dimensions, eliminating the epsilon-convergence expansion’s difficulties. This paved the way for the most up-to-date theoretical exponent estimations.

34. The mapping of the branching polymer issue in d-dimensions onto the Lee-Yang edge singularity on d-2 dimensions is another significant breakthrough.

35. Parisi’s recent work on disordered media interfaces and the dynamics of expanding interfaces has had a significant influence in both disciplines.

36. The solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick mean-field model for spin glasses is Parisi’s most significant contribution. Following the crisis produced by the “replication trick’s” undesirable characteristics, Parisi offered his replica symmetry-breaking solution, which appears to be accurate but is far more difficult than expected.

37. In terms of the probability distribution of overlaps and the ultrametric structure of the configuration space, Parisi and coworkers Mezard and Virasoro substantially explained the physical meaning of the cryptic mathematics involved in this scheme.

38. One of the most significant advances in the history of disordered systems is his achievement. This finding paved the way for a slew of new applications, such as optimization and neural network theory.

39. Giorgio Parisi received the Boltzmann Medal in 1992 for his contributions to statistical physics, notably his solution of the mean-field theory of spin glasses.

40. From 1971 until 1981, he worked as a researcher at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati. During this time, he took leave from Frascati to study at Columbia University in New York (1973-1974), the Institute des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques (1976-1977), and the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris (1976-1977). (1977-1978).

41. Giorgio Parisi is a member of the Accademia dei Lincei, as well as a foreign member of the French Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.

42. He was appointed full professor of theoretical physics at the University of Roma II, Tor Vergata, from 1981 to 1992, and he is currently a professor of quantum theories at the University of Rome I, La Sapienza.

43. Giorgio Parisi has over 500 peer-reviewed papers to his credit, as well as over 50 contributions to conferences and schools.

44. His main research interests have been in elementary particles, phase transition theory, and statistical mechanics, mathematical physics and string theory, disordered systems (spin glasses and complex systems), neural networks, theoretical immunology, computers, and very large-scale QCD simulations (the APE project), and non-equilibrium statistical physics.

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